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Electrolytes - Why, When, How

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 Why do Horses Need Electrolytes 

When horses are  working  the muscular activity associated with training and competition results in a rapid increase in body temperature. The only way for horses to lose this excess body heat is via sweat production; in fact efficient muscle function is dependent on it. Sweat is the major route of fluid and electrolyte loss in horses, taking with it significant amounts of water and electrolytes from the body. It is a natural process so why worry quicklyte 3001about it - well the loss of water alone is debilitating but combined with a serious loss of vital salts and minerals can result in negative neuromuscular reactions from muscle cramping to tying up, systemic alkalosis. Without replacing the losses, the horses’ ability to sweat is reduced and therefore the ability to reduce body temperature is also reduced. It seems ironic but when the sodium is reduced by sweating, the horses’ thirst is also reduced and so it will not want to drink and therefore it exacerbates the condition of dehydration. In this instance a quick replacement is needed, ideally with chelated actives which are absorbed more quickly than standard salts and minerals. A product such as Quicklyte has been developed to help resolve the problem. Working a horse without providing electrolytes may result in dehydration which can damage the health of the horse. 

 

When do Horses Need Electrolytes 

In very light work, or just resting in a paddock, a horse may get by without extra supplementation, and conditions are not unusually hot, or the horse not sweating under his cover or getting stressed and running around - in other words no sweat. Sweating for whatever reason, training or competing or just hot weather does create a need for proper electrolyte supplementation, the harder the work or the hotter the condition - the greater the need. A salt lick is definitely not enough and anyway it has been proven that it is not possible for a horse to determine for itself how much it needs. Some horses chomp away and overdo the intake, others will not take enough. A horse does not have an innate ability to work out what they need, the human has to help. So when things get more serious and horses get ridden, the owner has to provide a correct electrolyte supplement. The greater the combination of hard work and hot weather - then the need will also be for an instant fast acting electrolyte. Otherwise for more normal conditions a horse can be kept well balanced with a daily supplement to the feed. Horses with gastric illness that creates diarrhoea will need electrolytes to prevent dehydration from the water lost from the gut. 

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What Are the Electrolytes for Horses

Salts and minerals are a necessary daily requirement to support the health of the horse. The harder the work - the greater the level of supplementation. It’s not just about fast work as in racing or eventing, but Dressage and Showing is work too and often in hot conditions. It is important to know what constitutes sweat, what is lost and to check out what you are using to replace the losses with.



Electrolyte composition of sweat:

Chloride 7gms/litre
Sodium 4gms/litre
Potassium 1.3gms/litre
Magnesium .13gms/litre
Calcium .25gms/litre
Phosphorus .03gms/litre

So you see that it is more than just sodium chloride and merely giving a horse some salt is not going to replace the losses. We talk about the Dietary Electrolyte Balance (DEB) as being the total amount of electrolytes, a standard type mixed diet is usually not enough to meet the required DEB. To demonstrate this point, consider a basic diet of 6kg Grass/Hay + 3kg Oats + 3kg Sweet feed with no added electrolyte supplement. If we analyse this diet it equates to:

 

Actual

Requirement

Crude Protein

1200gm

1300gm

Digestible Energy

30mCals

30mCals

Potassium

145gms

55gms

Sodium

18gms

42gms

Calcium

60gms

47gms

Magnesium

19gms

22gms

Chloride

46gms

80gms


This diet has a low DEB with Chloride, Magnesium and Sodium levels being low. Potassium is rarely deficient in diets based on grass and hay. An increase in the work of a horse will create a requirement for an increase in daily electrolyte supplementation as horses do not store sodium, potassium or chloride from one day to the next. Therefore electrolytes need to be adjusted according to the work level of the horse and the environmental conditions. Working in hot conditions will create a higher rate of sweat and therefore a need for greater replacement. When not in work the horse needs less, if over supplemented, it will increase water intake and urine loss. A correctly formulated Electrolyte supplement should contain Chloride and Sodium at a ratio of approximately 2:1 as well as Calcium and Magnesium at low levels. The equine kidney has developed to handle forage diets which are high in Potassium and low in Sodium. They easily excrete any excesses with no detriment to the physiology of the horse. As long as the kidneys are functioning properly and the DEB is correct, they will regulate and maintain the body’s Electrolyte levels. The idea of acid and alkaline Electrolyte supplements is now regarded by equine physiologists as unnecessary. Horses can develop a mild metabolic acidosis after intense exercise and may develop a metabolic alkalosis in situations of heavy sweat loss. In both these cases so long as there is sufficient Chloride in the DEB then the horses kidneys will sort out its own acid/base balance. Vetpro Equine Electrolytes are a neutral PH composition.

How to Provide the Right Salts and Minerals

It is difficult to assess a horses electrolyte status from a blood test, samples of blood and urine need to be taken at the same time and you need to consult your veterinarian for this. It is necessary to look for a full formulation to cover the basic needs of normal work and warm weather, and add this to the feed each day then as work increases and or the weather gets hotter, increase the recommend dose to the higher levels. For a higher demand - hardest work - hottest days - use a fast replacement such as Quicklyte as well as the daily doses in the feed.

Do check out the labels on products you are using, see if they are PH neutral, and if they have the correct amount of all the necessary salts and minerals in the right ratios. Warning some premixed feeds say they contain electrolytes but will only deliver the amount on the label if you feed the amount of feed they recommend, often 5 to 7 Kgs of that feed. It is rare that happens and so the amount of actives will be reduced proportionately and therefore will not be sufficient for the needs of the horse. If you feed half the recommended amount of feed then you will only get half of the ingredients including supplements.

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Vetpro Equine Electrolytes

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